Modern electronic devices, whose development relies on our understanding of the properties of solid-state materials, have made profound impact on our society in various aspects including communication, health care, industry, and security. Emerging new devices such as quantum computers are expected to further revolutionize all aspects of our world from defense to financial trading. Two of the three leading platforms for building a quantum computer are based on solid-state materials. Nowadays, millions of new solid-state materials can be discovered by using modern computer technologies. Developing methods for characterizing these new materials is an essential step towards fabrication of new devices.